Thursday, 16 September 2021

2022 Selective and Scholarship Test Preparation

This blog will take the load off the Mathemafix message board by hosting important information about 2022 Selective and Scholarship test preparation.

17 Sep
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It's now the time for year 5 students to start paying attention to writing.

Writing is an area where students really struggle. I find that students tend to have a lot of problems in so many basic areas:

- Punctuation and sentence structure: Students don't know where is the end of a sentence so they have run-on sentences all over the place. This is where they have many clauses in one sentence without using conjunctions to connect them. They also don't know how to us the comma, speech marks (punctuation of dialogues).

- Correct choice of conjunctions to join sentences: Students tend to pick the wrong conjunctions and make the meaning unclear.

- Paragraph: Students often don't know that one paragraph should only contain one main idea. They tend to write their entire text or story in one or two paragraphs!

- Format of a non-fiction paragraph: Students often don't even know the basic structure of a non-fiction paragraph so they write ineffective paragraphs.

To improve basic writing skills in order to move on to write good narratives and persuasive tasks, students should access the following Mathemafix resources

1- Mathemafix's Online Writing Resources (on page QUICK LINKS). This document guides students to how to use all the e-writing resources on the website. This is the map to all important writing resources.

2- The module Punctuation in More ...

3- The essential videos: Adjectives | Adverbs | Participles as verbs and adjectives | Phrases | Adjectival and adverbial clauses | Conjunctions | Use conjunctions to make flowing sentences | Sentence improvement | Sentence construction | Common errors in writing, Text composition skills | Main Idea and Finding Main Idea. They can be found in the module "Writing Workshop".

4- Finally, the most important thing is to write and get feedback. Students should use (1) above to explore all the e-writing modules. Then use the Selective Writing module to practise writing tasks. In this module, parents can help mark the writing of students or pay for professional marking service.

14 Sep
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Year 5 students are getting to the final term of year 5. Without such a long lockdown in Sydney, school marks won't be used in the selective application this year. This is good because school marks are very unreliable. The result from 2021 shows that English reading and thinking skills will be most important. Writing also helps a lot. This makes people wonder why a high maths score does not help and whether it's important to do well in maths at all. The answer is not simple.

Mathematics

Maths score is not very important because too many students score too well in maths. But maths takes up about 40% of the thinking skill paper! So, maths is very important and not so important at the same time! Confused? You are not alone.There is an explanation for this.

The maths they put into the maths paper is basic in nature. It is easy and school-type maths. So, most students score very well. The maths in the TS paper is a mix of general knowledge and word problems to explore how students think mathematically. This is the hard-core maths problem solving plus with making a decision based on mathematical calculations. This type of mathematical thinking is almost absent in maths learning at schools until students get to year 8-9. This is why the maths reasoning questions in the TS paper are so hard.

So, students should  do the hard maths challenge series and maths problem-solving series and learn the maths problem solving strategies provided by Mathemafix website.

English

English reading is so important. It looks clear that the marking favours students who are excellent in either English reading or TS over those who get decent scores across all areas. They might have applied HSC scaling style where it favours those with extremely high scores. Students are troubled by the sentence cloze question type where it's very difficult to put back sentences that have been taken out of a text. Students must be able to predict what the text is about, the structure (organisation) of the text and have the patience to review the whole text before they finally decide what is going where ... This tests the patience of the  students as well as knowledge and skills. Another challenge is poetry which is abstract and demanding in general knowledge and maturity. 

To help students, Mathemafix provides a Sentence Cloze module for students to practise this type of questions. A new series of poetry tests will help students improve comprehension of poetry.

 

14 Jul
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The 2021 selective test results look very good. All the noise about Thinking Skills turns out to be nothing. It's of zero concern and actually TS is probably easier to learn than GA where there is really no good way but to do a lot of GA questions. At least, with TS, one can learn properly. And that's why I have created video lessons and practice tests for students. TS learning also enhances writing and reading.

The scores students get for TS look very good and a couple of students got 100%! It looks like we actually over-prepared for TS. Students were advised to also do the GA as well because it's part of TS visual and mathematical reasoning but many did not. We could have got even better results for TS if all students did GA.

The scores for English looks a lot better than those from ACER time when they gave tricky English. I also see high writing scores among students who were actively working on writing with the Selective Writing module. So, overall, I can see that the number of students getting to top 10 selective schools increases over last year's.

The main point I take out of the 2021 selective test results to help kids improve in 2020 is that we now have much better TS prep for the students. The year 5 students now have access to a comprehensive TS preparation module for year 4 students doing OC test. This prep is almost enough for selective TS level. In addition, they will also use the TS prep for year 6 which is a bit too high but that will help more students to score over 90% for TS in 2022 selective test.

05 Feb
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Now is the time for year 5 students to build the foundation. Mathemafix is offering two online Google class to take students to a high level of performance in mathematics and in writing.

https://mathemafix.com/workshops.html

The first class is for advanced mathematics. It is designed for students who have completed all year 6 school mathematics. The time is really flexible as students have a whole year to do this Google class from now until Feb 2022.

The second class is about narrative and persuasive writing. There is no requirement before starting this class. Students are supposed to have basic grammar and spelling at year 5 level.  Similar to the maths class, the time is really flexible as students have a whole year to do this Google class from now until Feb 2022. 

One of the most important thing about writing is that students need a marker to review and comment on their works. Mathemafix will provide on-demand marking to allow parents to pay only for each piece of work that they request marking.

03 Jan
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In 2022, students will be doing an online selective test. They actually planned an online test for 2021 but they changed their mind. They may change their mind again in 2022 unless they think there will be enough computer resources to do this online.

https://education.nsw.gov.au/public-schools/selective-high-schools-and-opportunity-classes/year-7/the-test#Test2

They will replace the GA questions by thinking skills questions. If we look at the selective sample TS paper, they have about 50% of mathematical+spatial reasoning questions and 50% verbal reasoning questions. The big question in the mind of parents would be whether GA tests are still relevant. My opinion is that the GA questions are still relevant as they boost skills in maths reasoning, spatial reasoning and vocab which is useful for understanding verbal reasoning questions. This is why I think students should still do GA tests. There is nothing to worry about the 50% of mathematical+spatial reasoning as I expect students on this website have all what they need to do well.

Then the next question is "What is the TS verbal reasoning?" It's a new style of questions based on verbal arguments. It is grouped into 2 groups. One is of argument and the other one is of logical deduction (only a few questions). The argument group uses the basic skills students learn in English reading with a focus on Main Idea, Supporting Details, Conclusion and Argument. An argument can be defined as a process where the writer/speaker presents the main idea and supporting details on the way to reach a conclusion. So, one can consider "argument" as a presentation method (writing method). Students already work on these basic skills when they do the Reading Skills series from year 3-5. What Cambridge does with TS questions is that they set them at a very hard level where all the basic skills must be good enough before students can deal with Cambridge's questions.

But all this change does not really make much of a difference because students still need to prepare the foundation before they reach the level where they can deal with the exam. And this means the real test preparation only happens about 12 weeks before the exam. The only difference is that the TS questions are set at such high level that it does not make sense for kids to start doing any selective trials before the end of year 5.

01 Feb
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The OC result from the delayed 2020 OC test looks much as expected from an ACER test. The only notable difference is that English scores look more stable. The GA scores actually looks high so the scaling for it is probably lower. Students will move on to 2022 where they will do the new Cambridge test. This roup is lucky because in 2021, the first group to do the Cambridge test will face a lot of uncertainty due to the change in test format and the switch from GA to Thinking Skills.

For details on the 2020 OC prep and test result, follow this link.

https://mathemafix-users.blogspot.com/2020/03/2020-oc-preparation.html


18 Nov
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The OC test in 2020 has been delayed so much that it happens in Nov. Students are tired and they don't get a lot of break time to rest before year 5 starts. What this means is that students should be allowed to rest very well from Nov to Jan 2021. Often parents are in a hurry to get students back to studying again for the selective test. This is not a good idea.

However, for those who really rest, it's a great time to improve English by simply reading a big variety of books and big fiction series. English is always the most important area of learning as it supports GA and word problems in maths. It's very important to enrich English vocab to cope with the hard verbal tests in GA.

Sunday, 28 March 2021

2021 OC preparation

This blog will take the load off the Mathemafix message board by hosting important information about 2021 OC preparation.

04 Jul
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Parents talk about how their kids struggle with logical questions. I start to realise that people need to be familiar with
conditional thinking to become good in dealing with logical thinking. One vital still is to set up conditional statements.

Factual statement: A rocket has one or more jet engines.

A conditional statement: If a machine is called a rocket, it has to have one or more jet engines.

This conditional statement has two parts. The order of the parts is important.

1 - If a machine is called a rocket, it has to have one or more jet engines.
2 - If
a machine has one or more jet engines, it is called a rocket.

The clause with "if" is the conditional clause (also dependent clause). It is also called the antecedent. The main clause at the end is the consequent.

Now, you are ready to reason! 

If a machine is called a rocket (P), it has to have one or more jet engines (Q). 

The logic rule is : A => B

Now one can use Modus Ponens or Modus Tollens to reason. Often, they set up statements going the wrong way (B => A) to trick students. The only correct way to reason is to follow the direction of the arrow.

Parents should work with kids to train them to think conditionally.


28 June
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As I mull over the topic of reasoning, I realise that people generally use 3 types of logical reasoning (even if they are not aware of the names and most have not been formally trained in any of them). These are inductive logic, propositional logic and mathematical logic.

Examples:

Inductive: The volcano is due to erupt some time in this century because historical records show that it had an eruption approximately every 600 years.

Propositional: If weather is hot and sunny, the beach will be full of people. As the weather prediction for this weekend is warm and sunny, I won't go to the beach as I hate crowds.

Mathematical: There is a chance above 80% that the baby turtles will be females when the nest temperature rises to 31C or higher.

In general verbal reasoning, we may encounter all three types of logical reasoning in a single conversation. This would be very confusing for students and this is similar to the trouble of mixed maths problem solving using several types of skills.

Example:

Covid-19 is a disease with severe flu-like symptoms.

If the above information is true, who has the best argument?

Joe: My uncle has severe flu-like symptoms, he could have covid-19.

Anna: No, severe flu-like symptoms do not necessarily mean that a person has covid-19.

Sue: You are both right, but Anna misunderstood what Joe said.

In the above example, Joe seems to be incorrect if you apply propositional logic. Joe reasons backward and this is invalid. However, he uses the word "could" which introduce a possibility. In a sense, this is mathematical reasoning based on probability (even though it is very hard to recognise that it is actually mathematical reasoning). So, Joe is actually correct. He does not insist on absolute truth. 

Anna, on the other hand, uses propositional logic and she states that you cannot reason backward. She is correct. 

Sue can see that Joe is correct and she also see that Anna is correct. But Anna misunderstood what Joe said. Anna missed the word "could" and thought that Joe thought the person surely had covid-19.

In this case, Sue has the best argument.

So, the TS questions with a conversational format are the ones to fear. One has to be very careful in judging what style of reasoning each character uses and also look at the modality of the wording (strength of words) to decide if the character makes good sense or not. Frankly, it's too much to ask kids at year 4-6 to know the differences between different reasoning styles and spot them and apply correctly. They may have to rely on experience of doing the questions to cope.


26 June
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I find that some students have problems with the strength of statements and commonsense vs logic.  This is part of English comprehension. When this is mixed with logical thinking skills questions, it can be a real probem. Students must pay attention to "will" vs "would". I had a poor example before. Now I have tracked down a a decent example.


Cornstarch dissolves in water immediately, leaving no lumps after stirring.

Barry: “So if I mix the powder and water together and no lumps appear then it must be cornstarch.”

Mike: “No, it is when you mix the powder and water, with no lumps appearing it would be cornstarch.”

If the information in the box is true, whose reasoning is correct?

A. Barry only.
B. Mike only.
C. Both Barry and Mike.
D. Neither Barry and Mike.

Barry looks guilty of backward reasoning. The powder is not necessarily cornstarch when it dissolves without lumps. One student pointed out that Mike could be wrong too. But the problem here is the use of the word "would". Mike is only talking about a possibility so he is making sense. If Mike said "... it will be cornstarch", then he is wrong and the answer for the question will be D.

In English reasoning/argument, often all choices that have weak statements with "possibly", "could", "would", "perhaps", ... are wrong as they carry opinions (rather than facts). In TS, we have to be very careful! Is this question a logical question or it's an English comprehension trap? Many TS questions are not easy to classify because they look like logical questions but they are in fact verbal reasoning.

19 June
---

I find that some students are trapped by the sort of TS verbal reasoning questions that looks like logical questions but in fact, they can be treated as a normal English comprehension questions. 

Example:

The light on the door is green and that means you can enter the room.

If the above information is true, who is correct?

Fred: "The light is red right now, so I cannot enter the room."

Anna: "Yes, and the light has been red all day, so no one could enter the room."

A. Only Fred is correct.
B. Only Anna is correct.
C. Both Fred and Anna are correct.
D. Both Fred and Anna are not correct.

Students often use their "outside" knowledge to answer this question. A red right means the room is locked or occupied, so you cannot enter. But that's not true in formal reasoning. The provided text does NOT state the meaning of a red light. It only states the meaning of green light. Therefore, there is not enough information. And that means Fred can be right or he can be wrong. This cannot be determined. Therefore, Fred is wrong because there is no choice saying "The truth cannot be determined".

Anna is wrong too as the truth cannot be determined due to lack of information.

There is not enough information to support any of the above speakers. So, choice D is the answer.

If you want to use formal logic, it still works the same way.

P => Q does NOT lead to not P => not Q

Example:

If you eat rotten food (P), you will get sick (Q).

does NOT lead to

If you do NOT eat rotten food (not P), you will NOT get sick (not Q).

They do not expect year 4 kids or year 6 kids to understand formal logic. They expect kids to use common sense and experience to work this out. The nasty bit is that they do not include a choice E, "There is not enough information to decide." What this means is that kids have to pick the choice that the statement is wrong when it is neither right nor wrong. It is simply a guess/opinion that could be right or wrong. This is a confusion between causual conversational English and formal logical argument.

14 June
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Kids are now up to OC trial 4. It is tough for the kids but the strong ones are doing much as I have expected.

Here is a tip about logical reasoning that can help kids to get extra points. Parents should get to understand the stuff here to help the kids.

The trap of reasoning direction

Good boys eats fruits

1/ Joe is a good boy => Joe eats fruits (TRUE)
2/ Joe eats fruits => Joe is a good boy (FALSE)

Going the wrong way is always FALSE.

Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens

The understanding of Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens is of enormous help as they are formulas that one can learn and apply in so many cases of logical reasoning. Parents should learn from the video lessons I provided for OC level and guide kids to recognise and apply them consistently. This is better than just rely on experience.

Modus Ponens (to confirm)

Assume that this statement is true.

X is a good boy => X eats fruits

Then

If Joe is a good boy, Joe eats fruits

 

Modus Tollens (to deny)

Assume that this statement is true.

X is a good boy => X eats fruits

If Joe does NOT eat fruits => Joe is NOT a good boy.


20 May
---

The 1st OC trial set will be open this weekend. Parents should arrange for kids to find a block of 2.5 hours to work continuously on the trial tests. This will give a realistic performance. It's a very bad idea to do the OC trial set over several days as this will not give any idea of real performance in an exam. Students get tired as they do a test and they score tend to fall depending on how tired they become. This is a chance to observe their mental endurance and help them improve strategy to best use their "fuel tank" to last the entire exam.

As the trial is set at year 5-6 level, students who are still doing year 4 work are not ready for it. There is no need to do it right away. It's better to work on year 5 work and OC boosters for a bit longer.

Suggested plan for the day

- Do OC English trial #1
- Rest for 5 minutes
- Do OC Mathematics trial #1
- Rest for 15 minutes
- Do OC Thinking Skills trial #1

Students can get very tired if they do not manage their time and effort during the first two tests very well. The risk is highest in the maths test as it burns up mental energy like crazy. If they put too much effort into solving the hard questions, they may burn themselves out and by the time of the Thinking Skills test, their minds no longer work. The key strategy to managing energy is the skipping of hard questions. When students see a hard (or very time consuming) question, just skip it. Do these at the end if there is still time left over.

To prepare for this OC trial, students should do the following

- Go to More ... and practise the new English question type called Sentence Cloze

- Do some English comprehension tests at grade 5 level

- Do some OC maths Boosters and review failed questions for this series

- Use the module Thinking Skills in More ... to watch video lessons and do the boosters and review failed questions for this series

- Do the OC General Ability Trial #1 to warm up to the Thinking Skills trial. This GA trial (for past OC test) is still very useful.

30 Mar
---
According the the SSU,

https://education.nsw.gov.au/public-schools/selective-high-schools-and-opportunity-classes/year-5/selection-process

The weighting of the different component of the OC applictation will be out of 120 points as follows:

The OC test will provide 100 points shared equally between English, maths and TS papers. Schools will provide 10 points for English and 10 points for maths.

The total weighting for each area including school marks will be roughly: Eng 36%, maths 36% and TS 27.7%

This means the impact of school marks will be a lot less and this is good as school marks are very unreliable. The TS component is now only 27.7% (vs 33.3% in the old OC application). So, it is now the weakest area of the whole OC application.
So, TS is now NOT a big deal like GA used to be.

29 Mar
---
I have solved all the questions in the sample OC test to see what they are like. My assessment is that the OC sample test is brutal for year 4 students. If we take the writing task out, the OC test is nearly the same size as the selective test (90 questions vs 105)! I find the English level is almost the same as that of the selective test. Maths is very challenging and not much easier than the maths in the selective test. The TS paper is significantly easier only in the verbal reasoning and the logic which accounts for about 45% of the paper. The maths and spatial reasoning in the TS paper is almost as hard as that of the selective sample.

The huge problem with the sample OC test is that students will run out of time. The questions of maths type are very heavy in working out. English is brutally hard. It turns out the TS questions in the area of verbal reasoning and logic turn out to be the easiest. This means there is very little need to prepare for the TS verbal reasoning and the TS logic questions.

The English reading paper has extremely long texts and difficult texts. It's so demanding on short term memory as students must read carefully and remember a lot to be able to answer the questions. Forgetful students with poor short-term memory will struggle badly and will run out of time as they have to go back into the texts to re-read.

The maths paper is so long and the questions are big. The students who do not have great mental maths to do the calculation will waste time and run out of time.

The TS paper is not very hard but the time is too limited. So, students will run out of time due to the hard maths reasoning.

It was clear that they made the real selective maths component easier to the sample (according to feedback from year 6 students). They also made the maths reasoning in the selective TS paper easier than what seen in the selective TS sample. If they do not make the real OC paper simpler, a lot of students will score very poorly. The effect of this will be all students who are not really good will crash. Only the smart students who also work very hard will do well. The hard-working ones who are not smart will not do well. The smart but lazy ones will not do well.

THEY MIGHT MAKE THE MATHS QUESTIONS A LOT EASIER LIKE THEY DID FOR THE SELECTIVE TEST. BUT WE CANNOT BET ON THIS!

So, students should

- Practise the new English question type "Sentence Cloze" using the Sentence Cloze module in More ...
- I will complete the TS module in More ... with prep tests and a TS trial series will be provided.
- Complete ALL year 5 school maths with Maths Online and work hard on Maths Problem Solving Strategies Year 4-5 and do the Maths Challenge series and all the OC Maths Boosters.
- Do all the GA series as well. Do not give up on GA as the GA on my website covers just over 50% of the TS paper.
 

17 Jan
---

Year 4 students/Parents, the SSU has not released a sample OC test. According to the SSU website, the test is still in paper format in 2021.

https://education.nsw.gov.au/public-schools/selective-high-schools-and-opportunity-classes/year-5

They will replace the GA questions by thinking skills questions. If we look at the selective sample TS paper, they have about 50% of mathematical+spatial reasoning questions and 50% verbal reasoning questions. The big question in the mind of parents would be whether GA tests are still relevant. My opinion is that the GA questions are still relevant as they boost skills in maths reasoning, spatial reasoning and vocab which is useful for understanding verbal reasoning questions. This is why I think students should still do GA tests. There is nothing to worry about about the 50% of mathematical+spatial reasoning as I expect students onthis website have all what they need to do well.

Then the next question is "What is the TS verbal reasoning?" It's a new style of questions based on verbal arguments. It is grouped into 2 groups. One is of argument and the other one is of logical deduction (only a few questions). The argument group uses the basic skills students learn in English reading with a focus on Main Idea, Supporting Details, Conclusion and Argument. An argument can be defined as a process where the writer/speaker presents the main idea and supporting details on the way to reach a conclusion. So, one can consider "argument" as a presentation method (writing method). Students already work these basic skills when they do the Reading Skills series from year 3-5. What Cambridge does with TS questions is that they set them at a very hard level where all the basic skills must be good enough before students can deal with Cambridge's questions.

There are a few things, parents need to know.

1/ Mathematical reasoning is not a problem. Students who are good in maths here are fine as I have all what they need. Students need to reach to the end of year 5 school maths and practise maths problem solving and do the maths challenge series.
2/ Students really need English reading skills to year 5 level before they are ready to deal with verbal reasoning. So, it's not realistic to get them to deal with TS questions when they are still working at year 3-4 level. Most students won't be ready until they are 2 months away from the OC test.

The strategy I have for TS is to ask students to work hard in English reading skills and general comprehension to year 5 level. I am working on a module called Thinking Skills. The section for Year 4-5 level (OC) is being developed. Students will focus on Main Idea, Supporting Details, Conclusion and Argument as the basic level. This will help them understand the verbal TS questions and then learn to deal with them. After the selective test in Mar, I will focus on OC level and create TS questions that are easier for the OC level. By around 3 months before the OC test, the SSU should have released a sample test for OC. And that will give a better idea of how difficult the questions are. This is the time students will start practising TS questions and get ready for the exam.

So, the focus for the next 3 months will be (1) Try to reach year 5 level in school maths and improve maths problem solving (2) Improve reading skills (including knowledge of grammar) and comprehension to year 5 level and (3) Get good English marks at school with good spelling and writing.